Question: In John 6: 1-14, did Jesus really feed 5,000 people (or a crowd about that size) with five loaves of bread and two fish? Who was counting? What’s the truth in this passage?
Raymond Brown, a well-known and highly esteemed Catholic scripture scholar was once asked this very question. He responded “I find no reason to dismiss the miraculous from the ministry of Jesus. Indeed, one of the oldest memories of him may have been that he did wondrous things — a memory that could have circulated not only among believers but among nonbelievers.” He goes on to explain that the miracle of the multiplication of the loaves was narrated in all four gospels suggesting, “Obviously the evidence for that miracle is of an earlier date.” This does not mean that miracles related only one time were “invented,” but that it “does allow greater possibility that this miracle story flowed from a later understanding about Jesus.”
In a story like this, it is helpful to look at the context of the miracle setting to search out the truth of the passage even if we will never be able to prove the miracle happened. After the miracle happens in John’s gospel, it is immediately followed by Jesus’ “Bread of Life” discourse in which Jesus boldly states, “I am the bread of life. Whoever comes to me will never be hungry” (John 6:35). He explains that we must eat his flesh and drink his blood in order to have life. The chapter is foundational to Catholic theology about the real presence of Christ in the elements of the Eucharist.
John’s gospel, in particular, is noted for the “signs” that Jesus worked that corresponded to his teachings of the same section. Ultimately, we have to put aside our desire to know the historical facticity of a miracle and open our minds to the truth it is trying to communicate. For the evangelist John, the message he was hoping to convey in this chapter is that Jesus was offering sustenance for the people of his time and that he continues to offer that to believers today.